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28 May 2023


Yoga Research

From the Annals of Yoga Research 

Research is extremely important to support different approaches to health care. In the recent past, Yoga has been gaining lot of attention as Yoga Institutes, reseachers, scholars have started offering substantive clinical research evidence. In this issue, Indian Yoga Association brings to you the Research Papers published by our Member Institutes and other Institutes or individuals on the benefits of Trataka – Yogic visual concentration technique

Kaivalyadhama S.M.Y.M. Samiti
Immediate effects of eye yogic exercises on morphoscopic visual acuity
Author: Tommaso Bianchi, Raffaella Bellen
Published in: Yoga Mimamsa
Published on: 2020

Background: Various studies have been carried out on what yoga can do for eyesight improvement and for eye health. Numerous of them tested both subjective and objective parameters in different optical fields (myopia, presbyopia, resistance to optical illusions, etc.). The majority of them have tested long-term yoga training. In literature, we found no evidence of the immediate effects of yoga exercises on visual abilities.

Aims: In this study, we tested some yoga exercises directly involving eyes in the improvement of morpho­scopic visual acuity.

Methods: Twenty participants have been examined for morphoscopic visual acuity on Snellen chart. After this, they have been invited to perform some yoga eyes exercise for 6 min overall. The exercises included ocular motility, focusing, concentration/purification (trataka), and relaxation (palming). Finally, they have been subjected again to the Snellen chart examination. Each eye has been examined separately.

Results: The results of the first and the second Snellen chart examination were compared, resulting in a visual acuity medium improvement of 2.28%. The differences between second and first examination ranged from -22.22% to +24.44%.

Conclusions: In literature, we found some critical analyses of the effects of eye yoga exercises on eyesight. Some studies deny every form of improvement in this field. However, the results of our study and the evi­dence found in literature testify the effectiveness of improvements. Some more studies would be useful to determine the efficacy of yoga training – both short- and long-term – on visual abilities, on refractive errors, on presbyopia, and on most serious eye pathologies.

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA)

Immediate effect of yogic visual concentration on cognitive performance
Author: B.R.Raghavendra, PrashanthSingh

Published In: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 34-36
Published On: January 2016

Abstract: The ancient Indian yoga text, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, describes six cleansing techniques. The objective of cleansing techniques is to pu­rify and prepare the body for the practice of yoga postures, breath regu­lation, and meditation. Yogic visual concentration technique (trataka) is one of these techniques. A previous study showed an increase in critical flicker fusion (CFF) following yogic visual concentration (trataka). The present study planned to assess the immediate effect of trataka on cognitive performance using the Stroop color–word test.

Performance on the Stroop color–word test was assessed in 30 healthy male volunteers with ages ranging from 18 years to 31 years old (22.57 ± 3.65 years). The participants were tested before and after yogic visual concentration (trataka) and during a control session on two separate days. There was a significant improve­ment in performance on the Stroop color–word test after trataka compared to the control session [repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment; p < 0.001].

Performance on the Stroop color–word test was better after trataka compared to the control session suggest­ing that the trataka technique increased the selective attention, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition.

Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University

Author: Kripesh Karmakar, Dr. Gaurav Pant
Published In: International Journal of Yoga, Volume 2; Issue 2; Page No. 45-48
Published On: March 2017

Abstract: Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by gathering information that is contained in visible light. The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision (visual, optical, or ocular). Visual perception is constructive in nature; that is a coherent whole is generated from ambiguous fragments that are encountered in dynamic visual scenes. Creating this coherent whole from fragmented sensory inputs requires one to detect, identify, distinguish and organize sensory input.
Aims: The main purpose of this study is to find the effect of Trataka Kriya session on Visual Perception of Elderly people.

Setting and Design: Thirty Elderly People (30) were taken as the subjects for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from above 60 years. The design used for the study was pre-post design. Stratified sampling technique was used for the subject’s selection. Methods: the current study was performed on the Visual Perception of Elderly People; pre and post data for the study were assessed on the scoring and norms of the tests conducted. It includes OMKAR Chanting, Trataka Kriya and Relaxation done by closing eyes until the inflammation feeling in eyes ends were used as the components of the session for a period of 6 Weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Dependent t-test was used for comparing the means of pre and post data between both the groups.

Results: Though there was not significant level of change in level of Visual Perception, yet there was a little improvement observed in case of Visual Perception after the end of session for 6 week.
Conclusions: The results conclude that the Session for a longer duration may have highly significant level of change in the level of Visual Perception of Elderly People.

Gujarat Ayurved University

A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of Trataka Yoga Kriya and eye exercises (non-pharmocological methods) in the management of Timira (Ammetro­pia and Presbyopia)

Author: G. Gopinathan, Kartar Singh Dhiman, and R. Manjusha
Published In: ‘AYU’ – An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda; 33(4): 543–546
Published On: Oct-Dec 2012

Abstract: Timira is a disease that can be attributed to wide range of clinical conditions starting from mild blurring of vision and having potential risk of permanent vision loss. According to the involvement of Dhatus (body elements) the condition can be grouped into two stages. The initial stage or Uttana, where the involvement of Dhatus is limited to Rasa, Rakta (blood), and Mamsa Dhatu (muscle tissue). When the Do­shas are localized in the first and second Patala refractive error do happen and in presbyopia more emphasis is given to Mamsa Dhatu. In this study only Uttana stage of Timira was considered. The clinical study was done on 66 patients of Timira in two groups of four sub groups each of myopia, hypermetropia, astigma­tism, and presbyopia. Group A was subjected to eye exercises (Bates method) and Group B was subjected to Trataka Yoga Kriya. After the enrolment of patients for this study, signs and symptoms were assessed both subjectively and objectively before, during, and after treatment. The study indicates that subjectively there are significant results in both the groups but objectively there is not much improvement.

Disclaimer: The Research Papers have been selected by the Yogavani Content Team from a Google search for ‘Benefits of Trataka -Yogic visual concentration technique’

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