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From the Annals of Yoga Research – August 2022
Yoga Research

From the Annals of Yoga Research – August 2022 

Research is extremely important to support different approaches to health care. In the recent past, Yoga has been gaining lot of attention as Yoga Institutes, reseachers, scholars have started offering substantive clinical research evidence. In this issue, Indian Yoga Association brings to you the Research Papers published by our Member Institutes and other Institutes or individuals on Effect of Yoga, Pranayama on Sleep

National Library of Medicine

Role of Yoga in Cancer Patients: Expectations, Benefits, and Risks: A Review

Authors: Raghavendra Mohan Rao, Ram Amritanshu, HT Vinutha,1 Shanmugaraj Vaishnaruby, Shashidhara Deepashree, Murthy Megha, Rajendra Geetha, and BS Ajaikumar

Published In: National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information

Published On: 2017

Abstract : The diagnosis and treatment of cancer poses severe psychologic distress that impacts functional quality of life. While cancer directed treatments are directed purely against tumor killing, interventions that reduce treatment related distress and improve quality of life are the need of the hour. Yoga is one such mind body intervention that is gaining popularity among cancer patients.

Several research studies in the last two decades unravel the benefits of yoga in terms of improved mood states, symptom reduction, stress reduction and improved quality of life apart from improving host factors that are known to affect survival in cancer patients. However, several metaanalysis and reviews show equivocal benefits for yoga. In this review, we will study the Yoga interventions in cancer patients with respect to expectations, benefits and risks and analyse the principles behind tailoring yoga interventions in cancer patients.

The studies on Yoga show heterogeneity with varied types of Yoga Interventions, duration, exposure, practices and indications. It also elucidates the situational context for reaping benefits and cautions against its use in several others. However, there are several reviews and bibliometric analysis of effects of yoga; most of them have not enlarged the scope of their review to cover the basic principles behind use of these practices in cancer patients.

This review offers insight into the principles and practice of yoga in cancer patients.

National Library of Medicine

Effects of yoga on symptom management in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

Author: S Hosakote Vadiraja 1, M Raghavendra Rao, R Hongasandra Nagendra, Raghuram Nagarathna, Mohan Rekha, Nanjundiah Vanitha, S Kodaganuru Gopinath, Bs Srinath, Ms Vishweshwara, Ys Madhavi, Basavalingaiah S Ajaikumar, S Bilimagga Ramesh, Nalini Rao
Published In: Journal of Primary Care Specialties

Published On: July 2009

Objectives: This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy on distressful symptoms in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy.

Materials and methods: Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days during the course of their adjuvant radiotherapy. Assessments included Rotterdam Symptom Check List and European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTC QoL C30) symptom scale. Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment.

Results: A GLM repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant decrease in psychological distress (P = 0.01), fatigue (P = 0.007), insomnia (P = 0.001), and appetite loss (P = 0.002) over time in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was significant improvement in the activity level (P = 0.02) in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between physical and psychological distress and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, and constipation. There was a significant negative correlation between the activity level and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite loss.

Conclusion: The results suggest beneficial effects with yoga intervention in managing cancer-and treatment-related symptoms in breast cancer patients.

National Library of Medicine

A Meta-Analysis: Intervention Effect of Mind-Body Exercise on Relieving Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients

Published In: National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information

Published On: July 2021

Author: Cong Liu, Man Qin, Xinhu Zheng, Rao Chen, Jianghua Zhu

Abstract: Objective: This paper aims to systematically evaluate the intervention effect of mind-body exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and SINOMED were retrieved to collect randomized controlled trials on the effects of mind-body exercise on relieving cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients. The retrieval period started from the founding date of each database to January 6, 2021. Cochrane bias risk assessment tools were used to evaluate the methodological quality assessment of the included literature, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analyses.

Results: 17 pieces of researches in 16 papers were included with a total of 1133 patients. Compared with the control group, mind-body exercise can improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients. The combined effect size SMD = 0.59, 95% CI was [0.27, 0.92], p < 0.00001. Doing Tai Chi for over 40 minutes each time with an exercise cycle of ≤6 weeks can improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients more significantly. Sensitivity analysis shows that the combined effect results of the meta-analysis were relatively stable.

Conclusion: Mind-body exercise can effectively improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients.

National Library of Medicine

Are mind-body therapies effective for relieving cancer-related pain in adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Published In: National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information

Published On: March 2022

Author: Nadia Danon, Muaamar Al-Gobari, Bernard Burnand, Pierre-Yves Rodondi

Objective: To assess whether mind-body therapies are effective for relieving cancer-related pain in adults, since at least one-third of adults with cancer are affected by moderate or severe pain.

Methods: We searched for all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that included adults (≥18 years) with cancer-related pain who were treated with mind-body therapies (mindfulness, hypnosis, yoga, guided imagery, and progressive muscle relaxation) in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Science Citation Index, Web of Science, trials registers, and reference lists. The primary outcome was pain intensity. We calculated the standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and assessed the risk of bias.

Results: We identified 40 primary studies involving a total of 3569 participants. The meta-analysis included 24 studies (2404 participants) and showed a significant effect of -0.39 (95% CI -0.62 to -0.16) with considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 86.3%, p < 0.001). After we excluded four “outlier” studies in sensitivity analyses, the effect size remained significant but weaker. There was a high risk of bias in all studies, for example, performance bias due to lack of participant blinding. Patients in multiple settings were included but many studies were of low quality.

Conclusions: Mind-body therapies may be effective in improving cancer pain, but the quality of the evidence is low. There is a need for further high-quality clinical trials.

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